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however, this process is not enough to allow the layers to change their positions.This principle allows sedimentary layers to be viewed as a form of vertical time line, a partial or complete record of the time elapsed from deposition of the lowest layer to deposition of the highest bed.Observation of modern marine and non-marine sediments in a wide variety of environments supports this generalization (although cross-bedding is inclined, the overall orientation of cross-bedded units is horizontal).

Explanations: A – folded rock strata cut by a thrust fault; B – large intrusion (cutting through A); C – erosional angular unconformity (cutting off A & B) on which rock strata were deposited; D – volcanic dyke (cutting through A, B & C); E – even younger rock strata (overlying C & D); F – normal fault (cutting through A, B, C & E).

The principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut.

There are a number of different types of intrusions, including stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.

Cross-cutting relations can be used to determine the relative ages of rock strata and other geological structures.

A similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found.

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